NetNumber Applications

NetNumber delivers an array of innovative network applications on our TITAN centralized signaling and routing control platform.  Applications are virtualized, NFV-compliant, cloud native and deployed on commercially available hardware, providing optimal network flexibility.  NetNumber applications enable carriers to accelerate implementation of new services across multiple generations of networks, while dramatically simplifying the core network and reducing operating costs.

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STP

The Signal Transfer Point (STP) is a router that relays SS7 messages (Message Signaling Units) between signaling points (SPs) in the SS7 networks. The STPs are connected to adjacent Signaling Points via TDM (LSL or HSL) or Sigtran signaling links. The STPs route messages at the MTP3 layer based on Destination Point Code, or at the SCCP layer upon message body content using deep packet inspection techniques, and can provide address translations (Global Title Translations) and screen content to limit the transfer of messages with dubious content or sent from unreliable sources. STPs allow operators to simplify their core network architecture or their interconnects by offering centralized access and routing points.

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DSC

The Diameter Signaling Controller (DSC) is a router that relays Diameter messages between different network elements in the Diameter networks. They can be deployed at the Edge of the networks as a Diameter Edge Agent (DEA) or in the core network as DRA (Diameter Routing Agent). The DSCs route messages based on destination realms, but can also implement advance routing based on a variety of Attribute Value Pairs (AVP) values, and include security/screening capabilities. The use of central routing agents in Diameter networks simplifies the engineering, operations and maintenance of LTE networks as well as enhances the robustness and the security of both the Edges and the Core of the networks.

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Signaling FW

The Signaling Firewall (FW) is a network element that serves the protection of the signaling networks typically on the interconnection points. It constitutes a centralized point of control where blacklist and whitelist can be enabled at multiple level of the signaling protocols. The Signaling Firewall is a must have for any mobile carrier or service provider. The GSMA (GSM Association) has published a SS7 Interconnect Security Monitoring and Firewall Guidelines document (FS.11), and a Diameter Interconnect Security guideline (FS.19).

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HSS

The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is the main subscriber database used within the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), providing subscribers information to other entities within the network and enables and controls sessions and services. It contains the subscription-related information (subscriber profiles), performs authentication and authorization of the user, and can provide information about the subscriber’s location and IP information. It is similar to the home location register (HLR) and Authentication Center (AuC) in the 2G/3G GSM networks.

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HLR

The Home Location Register (HLR) is the main subscriber database for a mobile network. The HLR is an integral component of CDMA (code division multiple access), TDMA (time division multiple access), and  GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) networks. The HLR contains pertinent user information, including address, account status, and preferences. The HLRs store details of every SIM card issued by the mobile phone operator with its unique identifier called an IMSI which is the primary key to each HLR record, as well as the MSISDNs, which are the telephone numbers used by mobile phones to make and receive calls.

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EIR

The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a database that keeps a list of mobile phones (identified by their IMEI) which are to be banned (black listed) from the network or monitored (grey list). The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of the mobile equipment that prevents network registration from stolen, unauthorized or defective mobile devices. The EIR is a component of the 2G/3G networks where the identify check is triggered by the MSC via MAP protocol, but also a component of 4G networks where the identity check is performed by the MME via Diameter protocol. The EIR optionally can be used to enforce the use of specific SIM Cards in identified devices (M2M, Prepaid Customers not having access to high quality phones, etc.).

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NP

The Number Portability  (NP) is a database that maintains all the records of phone Numbers being ported from one network operator to another. Number Portability enables Mobile (or Fix) phone subscribers to keep their Dial Number when changing Service Providers. The NP database provides a service in the mobile and fixed networks to enable direct or indirect routing services via a wide range of protocols such as MAP, CAP (CAMEL), INAP, SIP or ENUM.

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ENUM

The Electronic Number Mapping (ENUM) is a product specified by the IETF organization. Behind the generic product name, there are multiple deployment options offered by ENUM: Carrier, Public, Private, etc. In all scenarios, ENUM solutions allow the mapping of Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN) numbers with the Internet Protocol addressing and identification name spaces. The main use is the mapping of the telephone number (E164 numbering plan) to a URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) or an IP Address. ENUM can be the foundation of Call Forwarding services (between mobile, fix phones and personal computers for instance) but can also be used for Centralized Routing Engine.

DNS

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services or any resources connected in a private network. It associates various information with domain names. The DNS delegates the responsibility of assigning domain names and mapping those names to network resources by designating authoritative name servers. Signaling clients that obtain a URI for routing a call/session from an ENUM, SIP or Diameter signaling flow will often choose to use DNS to further resolve the host-name within a URI into an internal IP-address and port.

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Ut-Proxy

The Ut-Proxy is network element that delivers security features and authentication mechanisms for HTTP traffic between the User Equipment (UE) and an Application Server (AS) in the IMS networks. Ut Proxy consists of the Bootstrapping Server Function (BSF) and the Authentication Proxy (AP) acting as a combination of a Network Application Function (NAF) and reverse HTTP proxy. The BSF is deployed in the home PLMN and utilizes the Home Subscriber Server (HSS) or the Home Location Register (HLR) as a subscriber profile repository (HSS only) and Authentication Center (AuC). The AP is optimized for the routing of Ut/XCAP requests from the UE towards the IMS application servers and can be deployed in the home or visited PLMN.

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PCRF

The Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) is the node designated in real-time to determine policy rules in the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) network that supports service data flow detection, policy enforcement and flow-based charging. As a policy tool, the PCRF plays a central role in next-generation networks, it operates at the network core and accesses subscriber databases, like HSS, and other specialized functions, such as a charging system, in a centralized manner. PCRF plays a key role in VoLTE as a mediator of network resources for the IP Multimedia Systems network for establishing the calls and allocating the requested bandwidth to the call bearer with configured attributes.

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CRE

The Central Routing Engine (CRE) is a network element in the transit layer of the next generation VoIP networks used to centralize the routing. It simplifies network engineering and operations thanks to the centralization of the provisioning of the routing rules. Routing rules can be based on numbers, domains, subscribers, media/codec types, interconnects, origins and destinations... or a combination of all these parameters. CRE solutions also enable integration with Least Cost Routing solutions, and Number Portability correction with a local lookup or an external using multiple external referral query protocol (ENUM, INAP, MAP...). Additionally, the CRE application enables advanced features such as Call Barring, Fraud/Control, Quality of Service (QoS) based routing or even Policy based routing.

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IWF

The Inter-Working Function (IWF) is a network element that provides interworking functionality between two different signaling protocols in the network like Diameter-MAP, SIP-INAP, SIP-CAP etc.

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LRF

The Location Resource Function (LRF) is a network element in IMS networks which function is to retrieve the location information of a UE (user equipment) making emergency calls, and providing to the E-CSCF the routing information to route the call to the assigned PSAP (Public Safety Answering Point). The LRF can retrieve the location information directly from the SIP Signaling received from the E-CSCF, but can also make real time referral queries to an external Location Server (LS) to retrieve location information, or eventually contain an integrated Location DB to store location information (fixed networks). The LRF can contain an integrated Routing Determination Function (RDF), a database to obtain routing information associated to the location of the UE and the called emergency number.

  • HSS:  The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is the main subscriber database used within the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), providing subscribers information to other entities within the network and enables and controls sessions and services.  It contains the subscription-related information (subscriber profiles), performs authentication and authorization of the user, and can provide information about the subscriber’s location and IP information. It is similar to the home location register (HLR) and Authentication Center (AuC) in the 2G/3G GSM networks. 
  • HLR:  The Home Location Register (HLR) is the main subscriber database for a mobile network. The HLR is an integral component of CDMA (code division multiple access), TDMA   (time division multiple access), and  GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) networks.   The HLR contains pertinent user information, including address, account status, and preferences. The HLRs store details of every SIM card issued by the mobile phone operator with its unique identifier called an IMSI which is the primary key to each HLR record, as well as the MSISDNs, which are the telephone numbers used by mobile phones to make and receive calls. 
  • AuC:  The  Authentication Center (AuC) is a function to  authenticate  each  SIM card  that attempts to connect to the 2G/3G/4G core network (typically when the phone is powered on). Once the authentication is successful, the HLR/HSS is allowed to manage the SIM and services described above. An encryption key   is also generated that is subsequently used to encrypt all wireless communications (voice, SMS, etc.) between the mobile phone and the mobile core network.  If the authentication fails, then no services are possible from that particular combination of SIM card and mobile phone operator attempted.  
  • EIR:  The  Equipment Identity Register  (EIR) is a database that keeps a list of mobile phones (identified by their IMEI) which are to be banned (black listed) from the network or monitored (grey list).  The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of the mobile equipment that prevents network registration from stolen, unauthorized or defective mobile devices.  The EIR is a component of the 2G/3G networks where the identify check is triggered by the MSC via MAP protocol, but also a component of 4G networks where the identity check is performed by the MME via Diameter protocol.  The EIR optionally can be used to enforce the use of specific SIM Cards in identified devices (M2M, Prepaid Customers not having access to high quality phones, etc.).
  • NP:  The  Number Portability  (NP) is a database that maintains all the records of phone Numbers being ported from one network operator to another.  Number Portability enables Mobile (or Fix) phone subscribers to keep their Dial Number when changing Service Providers.   The NP database provides a service in the mobile and fixed networks to enable direct or indirect routing services via a wide range of protocols such as MAP, CAP (CAMEL), INAP, SIP or ENUM. 
  • Signaling FW:  The Signaling Firewall (FW) is a network element that serves the protection of the signaling networks typically on the interconnection points. It constitutes a centralized point of control where blacklist and whitelist can be enabled at multiple level of the signaling protocols.  The Signaling Firewall is a must have for any mobile carrier or service provider  The GSMA (GSM Association) has published a SS7 Interconnect Security Monitoring and Firewall Guidelines document (FS.11), and a Diameter Interconnect Security guideline (FS.19). 
  • Ut Proxy:  The Ut-Proxy is network element that delivers security features and authentication mechanisms for HTTP traffic between the User Equipment (UE) and an Application Server (AS) in the IMS networks.  Ut Proxy consists of the Bootstrapping Server Function (BSF) and the Authentication Proxy (AP) acting as a combination of a Network Application Function (NAF) and reverse HTTP proxy.  The BSF is deployed in the home PLMN and utilizes the Home Subscriber Server (HSS) or the Home Location Register (HLR) as a subscriber profile repository (HSS only) and Authentication Center (AuC).   The AP is optimized for the routing of Ut/XCAP requests from the UE towards the IMS application servers and can be deployed in the home or visited PLMN. 
  • EIR:  The  Equipment Identity Register  (EIR) is a database that keeps a list of mobile phones (identified by their IMEI) which are to be banned (black listed) from the network or monitored (grey list).  The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of the mobile equipment that prevents network registration from stolen, unauthorized or defective mobile devices.  The EIR is a component of the 2G/3G networks where the identify check is triggered by the MSC via MAP protocol, but also a component of 4G networks where the identity check is performed by the MME via Diameter protocol.  The EIR optionally can be used to enforce the use of specific SIM Cards in identified devices (M2M, Prepaid Customers not having access to high quality phones, etc.).
  • Ut Proxy:  The Ut-Proxy is network element that delivers security features and authentication mechanisms for HTTP traffic between the User Equipment (UE) and an Application Server (AS) in the IMS networks.  Ut Proxy consists of the Bootstrapping Server Function (BSF) and the Authentication Proxy (AP) acting as a combination of a Network Application Function (NAF) and reverse HTTP proxy.  The BSF is deployed in the home PLMN and utilizes the Home Subscriber Server (HSS) or the Home Location Register (HLR) as a subscriber profile repository (HSS only) and Authentication Center (AuC).   The AP is optimized for the routing of Ut/XCAP requests from the UE towards the IMS application servers and can be deployed in the home or visited PLMN. 
  • PCRF:  The Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) is the node designated in real-time to determine policy rules in the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) network that supports service data flow detection, policy enforcement and flow-based charging.  As a policy tool, the PCRF plays a central role in next-generation networks, it operates at the network core and accesses subscriber databases, like HSS, and other specialized functions, such as a charging system, in a centralized manner.  PCRF plays a key role in VoLTE as a mediator of network resources for the IP Multimedia Systems network for establishing the calls and allocating the requested bandwidth to the call bearer with configured attributes. 
  • AAA:  The Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) servers is a network element in the IMS networks used to identify every unique subscriber across any access technology (LTE, Wi-Fi, wireline, etc.) and implement policies that will ensure the best user experience. This critical network function must seamlessly integrate with other network functions (HSS, PCRF, etc.). 
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